The China Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty is the most solid, complete and magnificent wall in Chinese history. It was well-designed, and is known for its unique structure. In its time, it was an effective defense system. Many have been developed into popular tourist resorts. The defense system consists of the walls, watchtowers, beacon towers, forts, passes, and cities. The wall spans 5, miles 8, The actual wall takes up 3, miles Trenches account for miles Natural barriers such as mountains and rivers occupy 1, miles 2, The height and width of the wall varies according to the terrain.
The wall is relatively low and narrow on mountain ridges and other precarious places. It is high and wide on the plains and at military strongholds. The construction materials were acquired locally, including packed earth, bricks and stones.
Stone slabs and blue bricks were used at the most important sections. The Ming Dynasty was established after overturning the Yuan Dynasty and driving the Mongols back to the northern grasslands. During the Ming Dynasty, the Jurchen people of northeast China became powerful and threatened the border security of Ming. Under these critical circumstances, the Ming rulers ordered the Great Wall built to shore up its territory.
The wall building never stopped during the rule of the Ming Dynasty for over two centuries. The emperors divided the wall into 9 border districts and established 9 garrisons so that the wall was refurbished and managed more effectively. Later, two more garrisons, at Changzhen and Zhenbao, were added near the capital city, Beijing. By then, there were 11 garrisons along the Ming Dynasty Wall. Some 97, military officers and soldiers were stationed at the garrisons.
Many famous sections and pass cities were erected at the garrison sites such as Jiumenkou in Liaodong Garrison, Shanhaiguan in Jizhen Garrison, and Jiayuguan in Gansu Garrison. Related Reading: War of Shanhaiguan Pass. In general, the Wall of the Ming Dynasty is better-preserved than that of other dynasties. Apart from the 5, miles of walls, there are 7, enemy towers, 3, protruding watchtowers, 5, beacon towers, 1, fortresses, and many other buildings along the wall.Building The Great Wall of China remains one of the most incredible feats of engineering the world has ever seen.
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How Was the Great Wall of China Built? | History and Legends
Throughout the centuries, construction techniques naturally grew more advanced as different dynasties repaired and built on the earlier walls. In fact, a careful study of the history of the Great Wall of China alone can provide good answers to the question how was the Great Wall of China built. How was the Great Wall of China built? As with the modern Ming-era sections, the early builders of the Great Wall used the natural, mountainous terrain to their maximum advantage.
Visitors to the Great Wall today will notice that the walls are typically built on top of high mountains, using steep embankments to their defensive advantage whenever possible. In fact, much of the Great Wall was constructed along the Himalayan Mountain Range, which provided a natural defense but of course, construction on mountainous terrain was certainly not easy.
On a wider geographical scale, China would be protected from any northern invaders by the Tibetan Plateau to the west and by the Pacific Ocean to the east. The early walls, mostly from the Warring States Period as well as the Qin and Han dynastiesconsisted of mainly rammed earth. While this may sound like flimsy construction materials, these early walls were surprisingly sturdy fragments exist today despite millennia of erosion in harsh climates.
The Chinese were using this rammed or tamped earth technique as far back as the Yangshao culture circa BC. Suffice it to say, the Chinese were pretty good at building sturdy city walls or fortifications along their borders. Tamp it down one layer at a time and repeat.
Each layer started out at about 7 inches 18 cm before being compacted down to 5 inches 13 cm. These rammed-earth walls stood up particularly well in arid areas.
Constructing the Great Wall in the deserthowever, presented its own set of challenges. With lots of sand and little else, the builders had to improvise. They made use of gravel as well as native desert plants, especially the tamarisk plant. Used in tandem, they created surprisingly strong composite building materials by adding in decayed plant matter for added fibrous support and also increased strength by building a layer of branches between layers.
To this day, you can see ruins of Han-era walls in the desert that stand up to Other areas of the wall were primarily stone wallswhich were built in China for several millennia. The earliest walls were drywall structures without any mortar. But when carefully arranged on top of each other, they became sturdy rock walls that reached 6m high. Much later, during the 15th and 16th century walls of the Ming Dynasty, large blocks of granite, limestone, and even some marble was locally quarried and used as main construction materials.
In some rare spots along the wall, Ming builders added ornamental carved bas-reliefs and plaques. By the time the Ming Dynasty rolled around in the 14th century, Chinese construction design and techniques had made a quantum leap in sophistication. The Ming walls were built mostly with standard sized bricks, huge granite blocks, and locally quarried rocks.
These impressive Ming sections of the Great Wall stand about 25 feet 7. For the first time, kiln-fired bricks were used in the construction see the brick-firing kiln in the photo above.But the wall at that time was only a line of fortresses standing to defend against attacks from the Yanyun an ancient nomadic tribe in north China.
Instead of one line, their walls stretched in the four directions and varied in length from several hundred miles to one or two thousand miles. In the Qin Dynasty - BC the emperor Qin Shihuang ordered his laborers to connect these scattered walls and create some new sections, thus forming a Great Wall in northern and central China in the true sense. The Ming Dynasty - further developed the defensive system of the wall and strengthened it on a larger scale.
It pushed the wall construction to its highest peak.
Great Wall Construction Pictures. The winding Great Wall is not merely a wall but instead a complete and rigorous defense project composed of countless passes, watchtowers, garrison towns, beacon towers and blockhouses.
These fortifications were arranged in certain ways under the control of the military command system at all levels. For example, there were about 1, soldiers guarding the Ming's Great Wall. The chief military officers were stationed in garrison-towns, while lesser officials and soldiers were stationed in Guan Cheng the defensive beachhead and other smaller fortifications.
The eleven garrisons were set up along the wall in order to guard the precinct or subsection. The average height of the Ming's wall measures 33 feet and the width is about five yards.
In low, flat areas the wall was built high and more defense lines were added.What makes the Great Wall of China so extraordinary - Megan Campisi and Pen-Pen Chen
In the lofty mountains, the wall was a little lower in order to save the human and financial cost. Sometimes, even steep cliffs served as natural wallsF to thwart enemies. Today, the Great Wall has lost its military function, but as a great ancient engineering work, its magnificent beauty and austere structure are still worthy appreciating.
Answers App. As I know, the construction work lasts for thousands of years. Over 20 dynasties have built the Wall sections, so it might be a little bit hard to name all the designers. According to my research, General Qi Jiguang supervised the construction work during the late Ming Dynasty - Name Country Email.
Tailor My Trip. Great Wall Structure Illustration.A top American Think Tank said that the effort by China reflects its expansionist thinking and that conflict in South Asia could increase considerably in the coming decades.
According to reports, while the Myanmar army is opposing the construction of the wall along its border, China is firm on its stand. Meanwhile, the United States has expressed its concern over the construction of the wall along the Myanmar wall.
The Chinese government's mouthpiece Global Times Global Times in its report claimed that the purpose of building this wall is to curb illegal infiltration from Myanmar inside the country. This wall is being built with barbed wire about 9 meters in height in China's southwestern Yunnan province. On the other hand, A RFA report claimed that the real purpose behind the construction of the wall is to prevent dissidents from escaping from China.
Meanwhile, Myanmar's army is continuously opposing the action of China. The army has written a letter to Chinese officials and lodged a protest against the installation of barbed wire along its wire.
News World. China China building km long Great Wall along border of this country; know Xi Jinping's real intention A top American Think Tank said that the effort by China reflects its expansionist thinking and that conflict in South Asia could increase considerably in the coming decades.
Zee News App: Read latest news of India and world, bollywood news, business updates, cricket scores, etc. Download the Zee news app now to keep up with daily breaking news and live news event coverage. Next Story. Comments - Join the Discussion. India World. Must Watch. Dec 22, 3rd T20I.Over the Great Wall's thousands of miles the terrain changes from desert to riverside, from mountains to plains.
The Great Wall designers took advantage of the terrain, and built at strategic places to repel invaders most effectively. From the Great Wall relics we can see that the wall is either built along mountain ridges, across mountain passes, or across key transportation areas on flat land. Watchtowers and beacon towers were built high for observation and communication by signal fire. On the plains and desertsdesigners made use of rivers and their cliffs as natural barriers.
This not only controlled strategic places, but also saved labor and materials. Where bricks and blocks weren't available, tamped earth, uncut stones, wood, and even reeds were used as local materials. Wood was used for forts and as an auxiliary material. Where local timber wasn't enough, they had it delivered in. In mountain areas, workers quarried stone to build the Great Wall.
Using the mountains themselves as footings, the outer layer of the Great Wall was built with stone blocks and bricksand filled with uncut stone and anything else available like earth and dead workers. On the plains Great Wall workers made use of local soil sand, loess, etc. Jiayuguan's Great Wall section in west China was mainly built with dusty loess soil — "the most erodible soil on the planet".
It's amazing that sections 2, years old still remain mostly intact! Sand doesn't stick together, so how could a wall be built with sand? Sand was used as a fill material between reed and willow layers. West China around Dunhuang is desert. Innovative builders there made use of reeds and willow brought in from rivers and oases to build a strong wall.
The Ming Dynasty Great Wall was mostly built with bricks. To build a strong wall with bricks, they used lime mortar. Workers built brick and cement factories with local materials near the wall.The Great Wall of China is an ancient series of walls and fortifications, totaling more than 13, miles in length, located in northern China. Perhaps the most recognizable symbol of China and its long and vivid history, the Great Wall was originally conceived by Emperor Qin Shi Huang in the third century B.
The best-known and best-preserved section of the Great Wall was built in the 14th through 17th centuries A. Though the beginning of the Great Wall of China can be traced to the fifth century B. Around B. The famous Chinese general Meng Tian initially directed the project, and was said to have used a massive army of soldiers, convicts and commoners as workers. Made mostly of earth and stone, the wall stretched from the China Sea port of Shanhaiguan over 3, miles west into Gansu province.
In some strategic areas, sections of the wall overlapped for maximum security including the Badaling stretch, north of Beijing, that was later restored during the Ming Dynasty. From a base of 15 to 50 feet, the Great Wall rose some feet high and was topped by ramparts 12 feet or higher; guard towers were distributed at intervals along it.
After the fall of the later Han Dynastya series of frontier tribes seized control in northern China. The most powerful of these was the Northern Wei Dynasty, which repaired and extended the existing wall to defend against attacks from other tribes. The Bei Qi kingdom — built or repaired more than miles of wall, and the short-lived but effective Sui Dynasty — repaired and extended the Great Wall of China a number of times. With the fall of the Sui and the rise of the Tang Dynastythe Great Wall lost its importance as a fortification, as China had defeated the Tujue tribe to the north and expanded past the original frontier protected by the wall.
During the Song Dynasty, the Chinese were forced to withdraw under threat from the Liao and Jin peoples to the north, who took over many areas on both sides of the Great Wall. Though the Great Wall held little importance for the Mongols as a military fortification, soldiers were assigned to man the wall in order to protect merchants and caravans traveling along the lucrative Silk Road trade routes established during this period.
Despite its long history, the Great Wall of China as it is exists today was constructed mainly during the mighty Ming Dynasty Like the Mongols, the early Ming rulers had little interest in building border fortifications, and wall building was limited before the late 15th century. Under the strong hand of the Ming rulers, Chinese culture flourished, and the period saw an immense amount of construction in addition to the Great Wall, including bridges, temples and pagodas.
The construction of the Great Wall as it is known today began around After an initial phase of territorial expansion, Ming rulers took a largely defensive stance, and their reformation and extension of the Great Wall was key to this strategy.Erik Strom, United States Ultimate Journey of Norway, June 2017 We could not have asked for a better travel agent.
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